Legendary cylinder head gasket
The engine has three circuits: the working fluid (fuel, air, exhaust), oil and coolant.
And the main task of laying the cylinder head, so that these contours do not mix with each other. To date, we can talk about three types of gaskets.
Shrinkable or elastomeric. Initially, they had a steel base, on which an asbestos-graphite mixture was applied. It has modern versions, in the "asbestos-free" version and with a sealant applied around the channels.
The oldest type of gaskets, from which the factories are gradually moving away, and we are gradually returning.
Multi-layer steel, among amateurs and professionals, called "metal package".
As a rule, there is a composite layer in the middle of the gasket, and two thin crimp sheets of steel on top and bottom. The most striking example is the gaskets "Fritex", a Yaroslavl manufacturer.
The plant also makes these gaskets for our engines.
Copper ones. The best type of gaskets to date. It is used on sports and special equipment.
Of course, this is not pure copper, but some alloys, but they are popularly called that.
There were similar gaskets for 21213 and 21214, but they were "hand made" products, that is, completely handmade.
Our specific problem is the roughly processed block plane
Now a few words about why the cylinder head gasket Niva breaks through and why it is quite a mass phenomenon.
Engine tuning can be intensive or extensive.
Since 1967, the plant has been going exclusively on the second option," tprosto " boring the block from a penny and not bothering with any other modifications. The oil pump, the pump cover, the cooling channels, the shape of the combustion chamber-everything is left from the 2101.
But modern environmental standards are pressing and already in 2018, the fields and Shnivs of Euro-5 are leaving the plant, on an engine designed in the 60s of the last century:).
And for export, Euro-6 cars are made. Our "engineers" applied several "tricks", which are generally known since the time of the king of Peas. But the most interesting thing for us is to increase the operating temperature of the engine, bringing it close to the boiling point of our antifreeze.
Namely, 99-100 degrees, and the switching temperature of the fans is 105 degrees. Thus, we get the effect of "potash afterburning of the mixture".
There is a group of comrades who profess the saying: "no fools sit in the factory." Recall that in 1992, about 90 manufacturers of internal combustion engines gathered and adopted a standard for operating temperature, 90 degrees, the permissible deviation of 3 degrees. Back to the field.
Gaskets cannot withstand such operating temperatures.
In the era of e-3, e-4, the plant begins to install "Fritex" metal packages on the conveyor, and this is taught as a great technical breakthrough. But the padding data starts leaking for another reason, a horribly crudely processed block plane. And in the era of e-5, the plant decides to "conjure" with the firmware and return back to the shrink pads.
Well, the electronic gas pedal, it's just a "Klondike" to deceive car owners.
From what manufacturer, now they put a spare part on the conveyor, I do not know, but in the services, the laying of the cylinder head of the niva or the niva of the Chevrolet, "damaged" at 30-50 thousand, has long been no surprise to anyone.